Deionization Technology


Effectiveness of the Deionization (DI) process

The effectiveness of the DI process is determined by measuring the resistivity, conductivity, or concentration of dissolved minerals that are measured most often in parts per million (PPM). The removal of ions causes the water's resistivity to increase, providing a convenient measurement for the exact extent of deionization. Ultrapure deionized water has a theoretical maximum resistivity of 18.31 MΩ·cm, and a theoretical minimum conductivity of 0.0545 microsiemens/cm (compared to around 15KΩ·cm and microsiemens/cm for tap water).
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Basics of Deionization by Ion Exchange

THE PAST:

In the early 1800s, several scientists discovered the ion exchange process. The ion exchange industry in the United States was born in the early 1900s when cation exchangers were first synthesized.

ALL NATURALLY-OCCURRING WATER:

All naturally-occurring water contains dissolved mineral salts. In solution, salts separate into positively-charged cations and negatively-charged anions. Deionization can reduce the amount of these ions to a very low level through the process of ion exchange.

OUR UNITS PRODUCE LABORATORY GRADE DEIONIZED WATER:

Our units produce laboratory grade deionized water used in everything from auto detailing and manufacturing to kidney dialysis. Deionization is a method used by laboratories to produce purified water. The definition of pure: "Removal of Ions". The term is generally used with respect to the removal of ions from water. Deionization is commonly achieved by passing the water through successive ion exchange columns. In one column, ions are exchanged for H+ ions. In another column, anions are exchanged for OH- ions. Following a reaction of H+ with OH- ions, no ions remain in solution. It is produced through ion exchange. Simply said, water flows over porous beads that are positively and negatively charged and the minerals or total dissolved solids are removed. These ion exchange columns are porous beads called exchange resins.

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Basic Types of Systems

We provide three basic types of systems to produce deionized water:

DISSOLVED SOLIDS ARE THE CULPRIT....................
....................THE END RESULT IS....................
....................PURIFIED WATER.

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Deionization Exchange Resins

STRUCTURE OF DEIONIZATION RESINS:

In the manufacturing of resin beads, the two basic materials, styrene and divinylbenzene monomers, plus water and several other substances, are put into a chemical reactor. The reactor, equipped with an agitator, will break the liquid material into small droplets and, with the addition of a catalyst, small beads will form. Functionalization is utilized to make them into ion exchange resin.

SUPPLIER COMPANY:

We use exchange resin from the leading supplier of specialty resins for ion exchange, catalyst, absorbents, and specialty applications markets worldwide. They have global manufacturing capability as well as the largest commitment to R&D of any resin producer globally. They have received ISO 9001:2000 certification, and their QC procedures and criteria are widely recognized as being among the most stringent in the business.

EXCHANGE DEIONIZATION RESIN:

Our deionization units use premium grade exchange resin. Our Gel type strong acid cation exchange resin product is supplied in the hydrogen form, and has been optimized to give a high working capacity and good kinetic performance across a wide range of operating conditions. Our strong base anion exchanger provides both high operating capacity and the ability to achieve low residual silica levels. Our mixed bed is processed to the most exacting specifications. They are specially purified to insure high percentage conversion to their regenerated form, and are provided in closely controlled particle size ranges.

END PRODUCT:

Again, our units produce laboratory grade deionized water used in everything from auto detailing and manufacturing to kidney dialysis. To produce deionized water, supply water must flow through cation, anion, or mixed bed resins. These resins remove the positive and negative charged minerals from the water. These resins are small, porous spherical beads of different colors. The colors have nothing to do with the quality of the resins, although some companies claim they use premium gold resin insinuating this makes their product superior. Regenerated resins lose up to 30% of the deionization capacity, thus cutting down the amount of pure water produced by the unit. On The Go® uses only premium grade virgin resins. All of our resins come straight from the manufacturer and have never been regenerated. On The Go® stands behind all of our products and what they will accomplish in regards to mineral removal.

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Capability of Models

CAPACITY:

The effectiveness of the DI process is determined by measuring the resistivity/conductivity of the deionized water, many times measured in parts per million (PPM). Water quality from deionizers varies with the type of resin, feed water quality, flow, efficiency of regeneration, remaining capacity, temperature, etc.

The total dissolved solids (TDS) of the water source will help to determine local capacity of your unit and output of our deionizer to indicate when change-out is necessary.  This is easily accomplished with our simple-to-use, provided meter. The TDS can range from zero to 1000 PPM. The frequency for refilling is dependent upon the TDS of the water source, flow rate, and the gallons used per application.

This chart provides a guide on output capacities of our various models.
Model:   Standard Business Standard Business Standard Business Ultra Business
Part #:   # OTG2-SDI # OTG2-SDIL # OTG2-DDI # OTG2-DDIL # OTG2-TDI # OTG2-TDIL # OTG2-TDILL
Design:   Mixed Bed Mixed Bed Dual Bed Dual Bed Tri-Bed Tri-Bed Tri-Bed
Capacity:   0.25 CU FT 0.90 CU FT 0.25 CU FT 0.90 CU FT 0.25 CU FT 0.90 CU FT 1.50 CU FT
TDS Level (PPM) Gallons Gallons Gallons Gallons Gallons Gallons Gallons
100 450 1,690 1,150 4,300 2,300 8,600 15,000
200 235 845 600 2,150 1,200 4,300 7,185
250 180 680 460 1,725 920 3,450 5,750
300 160 565 400 1,450 800 2,900 4,750
400 115 475 290 1,080 580 2,160 3,231

QUALITY:

Warranty and quality performance is the best in industry! Again, our units produce laboratory grade deionized water used in everything from auto detailing and manufacturing to kidney dialysis. Our deionization systems use only a premium grade virgin exchange resin. Our systems use high quality exchange resin from the leading supplier of specialty resins for ion exchange, catalyst, absorbents, and specialty applications markets worldwide. It would be very difficult for any manufacturer to provide rock-solid numbers for resistivity, conductivity, and the associated parts-per-million without a water analysis being completed. All of our systems are produced using high grade polyglass tanks, designed with a wide mouth cap for easy refill, includes rugged construction, and are adaptable for either hose or pipe thread connections.

COST PER GALLON:

LESS THAN 10 CENTS PER GALLON!

Know your cost per gallon! Our systems provide DI water at the lowest cost! The cost of water and controlling our budget is critically important to each of us. Your total cost or daily expense can best be estimated by controlling the gallons used; using a water source with a low total dissolved solid content and selecting the DI system that will produce the cost per gallon that best fits your budget. Note that certain models provide a very attractive payback on your original investment driven by a very low cost per gallon.

This chart is provided to help you decide which system is best for your application*.
Model:   Standard Business Standard Business Standard Business Ultra Business
Part #:   # OTG2-SDI # OTG2-SDIL # OTG2-DDI # OTG2-DDIL # OTG2-TDI # OTG2-TDIL # OTG2-TDILL
Design:   Mixed Bed Mixed Bed Dual Bed Dual Bed Tri-Bed Tri-Bed Tri-Bed
Capacity:   0.25 CU FT 0.90 CU FT 0.25 CU FT 0.90 CU FT 0.25 CU FT 0.90 CU FT 1.50 CU FT
TDS Level (PPM) Gallons Gallons Gallons Gallons Gallons Gallons Gallons
Example 1:  
250 PPM:  
Cost/Gallon:  
180
0.33
680
0.31
460
0.15
1,725
0.14
920
0.09
3,450
0.09

5,750

Example 2:  
400 PPM:  
Cost/Gallon:  
115
0.52
475
0.45
290
0.24
1,080
0.22
580
0.15
2,160
0.14

3,231

*Examples based upon TDS of water source and cost of refill kit.

CONCLUSIONS:


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